Directions: The following passage is an early draft of an essay.
Read the passage and then answer the questions that follow. Some questions refer to particular sentences or parts of sentences and ask you to improve sentence structure or diction (word choice). Other questions refer to the entire essay or parts of the essay and ask you to consider the essay’s organization, development, or effectiveness of language. In selecting your answers, follow the conventions of Standard Written English.
(1) In observing a live performance such as a play or a stand-up routine, each individual member of the audience is affected by the group’s emotional response to the show. (2) Some research shows that audience members are likely to laugh along with the laughter of others in the audience much more frequently than they would laugh at the same performance if viewing it alone.
(3) As performances moved to radio and television in the first half of the twentieth century, producers were well aware of the important role of this social laughter. (4) Early radio and television comedies were broadcast live with a real audience in the studio to provide the reactions that helped at-home audiences feel connected to the performance. (5) As advances in technology allowed performances to be prerecorded, edited, and enhanced for later broadcast, recorded laughter gained wider use. (6) It can be called “canned laughter” or a “laugh track.”
(7) The laugh track gives producers the ability to create an audience response that aligns with the finished, edited performance. (8) In live broadcasts, the show is performed from beginning to end without stopping, and live studio audiences have an authentic, if unpredictable, response to the performance, just like that of audiences listening or watching at home. (9) In a recorded performance, though, directors are free to stop the scene, ask performers to redo a particular segment or have the crew switch equipment, and start again. (10) This interrupted, disjointed style of performance makes it difficult for them to hold a live studio audience’s interest. (11) Therefore, editors often add recorded laughter into the final edited version of the program. (12) Highlighting each joke with just the right volume, duration, and quality of laughter to prompt audiences at home to laugh at the intended times. (13) Although some contemporary television comedies do not use a laugh track, many programs for children and adults alike rely on recorded laughter to create a sense of audience participation.
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Which of the following, if inserted immediately before sentence 1, would make the best introduction to the passage?
There are actually scientists who study human laughter.
The laughter you hear on many television comedies was probably prerecorded.
The technology used to produce radio and television programs has advanced rapidly.
Many people believe that comedy is less meaningful than drama, but both can evoke strong emotional responses.
Shared laughter has a powerful influence on an audience’s relationship to a performance.
What is the highest-degree term in the expansion of
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Which of the following is equal to
Let , , and , where a is a positive number that is not equal to 1. What is the value of
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At the beginning of each year, the population of a small town is predicted to be 2 percent greater than its population at the beginning of the preceding year. If P is the population of the town on January 1, 2018, what is the predicted population of the town on January 1, 2023?
Directions: This section measures test takers’ ability to analyze writing. This skill is tested primarily in passage-based questions pertaining to critical thinking, style, purpose, audience, and situation: appeals, tone, organization/structure, rhetorical effects, use of language, and evaluation of evidence.
(1) There was a steaming mist in all the hollows, and it had roamed in its forlornness up the hill, like an evil spirit, seeking rest and finding none. (2) A clammy and intensely cold mist, it made its slow way through the air in ripples that visibly followed and overspread one another, as the waves of an unwholesome sea might do. (3) It was dense enough to shut out everything from the light of the coach-lamps but these its own workings, and a few yards of road; and the reek of the labouring horses steamed into it, as if they had made it all.
(4) Two other passengers, besides the one, were plodding up the hill by the side of the mail. All three were wrapped to the cheekbones and over the ears, and wore jack-boots. (5) Not one of the three could have said, from anything he saw, what either of the other two was like; and each was hidden under almost as many wrappers from the eyes of the mind, as from the eyes of the body, of his two companions.
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The overall mood of the passage can best be described as