Directions: The following passage is an early draft of an essay.
Read the passage and then answer the questions that follow. Some questions refer to particular sentences or parts of sentences and ask you to improve sentence structure or diction (word choice). Other questions refer to the entire essay or parts of the essay and ask you to consider the essay’s organization, development, or effectiveness of language. In selecting your answers, follow the conventions of Standard Written English.
(1) In observing a live performance such as a play or a stand-up routine, each individual member of the audience is affected by the group’s emotional response to the show. (2) Some research shows that audience members are likely to laugh along with the laughter of others in the audience much more frequently than they would laugh at the same performance if viewing it alone.
(3) As performances moved to radio and television in the first half of the twentieth century, producers were well aware of the important role of this social laughter. (4) Early radio and television comedies were broadcast live with a real audience in the studio to provide the reactions that helped at-home audiences feel connected to the performance. (5) As advances in technology allowed performances to be prerecorded, edited, and enhanced for later broadcast, recorded laughter gained wider use. (6) It can be called “canned laughter” or a “laugh track.”
(7) The laugh track gives producers the ability to create an audience response that aligns with the finished, edited performance. (8) In live broadcasts, the show is performed from beginning to end without stopping, and live studio audiences have an authentic, if unpredictable, response to the performance, just like that of audiences listening or watching at home. (9) In a recorded performance, though, directors are free to stop the scene, ask performers to redo a particular segment or have the crew switch equipment, and start again. (10) This interrupted, disjointed style of performance makes it difficult for them to hold a live studio audience’s interest. (11) Therefore, editors often add recorded laughter into the final edited version of the program. (12) Highlighting each joke with just the right volume, duration, and quality of laughter to prompt audiences at home to laugh at the intended times. (13) Although some contemporary television comedies do not use a laugh track, many programs for children and adults alike rely on recorded laughter to create a sense of audience participation.
Select an Answer
In context, which of the following is the best revision to the underlined portion of sentence 2 (reproduced below)?
Some research shows that audience members are likely to laugh along with the laughter of others in the audience much more frequently than they would laugh at the same performance if viewing it alone.
In contrast, some
In fact, some
Directions: Read each sentence carefully, looking for errors in the underlined portions. Assume that elements of the sentence that aren’t underlined are correct and can’t be changed. If there’s an error, select the one underlined part that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If there’s no error, select No error. In choosing answers, follow the requirements of Standard Written English.
Select an Answer
Improbable as it (A) may seem when (B) one observes (C) its awkwardness on land, penguins are (D) extremely graceful swimmers. (E) No error