Questions 4–6 refer to the passage below.
O Vanity! how little is thy force acknowledged, or thy
operations discerned! How wantonly dost thou deceive
mankind under different disguises! Sometimes thou dost
Linewear the face of pity, sometimes of generosity: nay, thou
(5)hast the assurance even to put on those glorious
ornaments which belong only to heroic virtue. Thou
odious, deformed monster! whom priests have railed at,
philosophers despised, and poets ridiculed: is there a
wretch so abandoned as to own thee for an acquaintance
(10)in public? yet, how few will refuse to enjoy thee in
private? nay, thou art the pursuit of most men through
their lives. The greatest villainies are daily practised to
please thee; nor is the meanest thief below, or the greatest
hero above, thy notice. Thy embraces are often the sole
(15)aim and sole reward of the private robbery and the
plundered province. It is to pamper up thee, thou harlot,
that we attempt to withdraw from others what we do not
want, or to withhold from them what they do. All our
passions are thy slaves. Avarice itself is often no more
(20)than thy handmaid, and even Lust thy pimp. The bully
Fear, like a coward, flies before thee, and Joy and Grief
hide their heads in thy presence.
I know thou wilt think that, whilst I abuse thee, I court
thee, and that thy love hath inspired me to write this
(25)sarcastical panegyric on thee; but thou art deceived: I
value thee not of a farthing; nor will it give me any pain if
thou shouldst prevail on the reader to censure this
digression as arrant nonsense; for know, to thy confusion,
that I have introduced thee for no other purpose
(30)than to lengthen out a short chapter; and so I return to
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Which of the following best reflects the ideas in the first sentence?
People do not sufficiently recognize the power of vanity in action.
Only discerning people recognize vanity when they come upon it.
Vain actions are usually forceful and can therefore be recognized.
Vanity often causes people to use force against others.
The operations of vanity are difficult to detect because they are not usually forceful.